Panipat Pdf In Marathi

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Qalandar
Regions with significant populations
India • Nepal
Languages
Urdu • Hindi
Religion
Islam 100%
Related ethnic groups
Jogi • Jogi Faqir • Sai

The Qalandar (Hindi: क़लन्दर, Urdu: قلندر‎) are a Muslimethnic group, found in North India and Pakistan. They are also known as Qalander Faqir.[1] A few Qalandar are also found in the Terai region of Nepal.[2][3]

  • 2Present circumstances

History and origin[edit]

The Qalandar in India trace their origin back to the devotees of the Sufi saint Bu Ali Shah Qalandar, who is buried in Panipat, in what is now Haryana. These devotees left their homes in the cities of Karnal and Panipat for some unknown reason and settled in territory that now forms part of the modern state of Uttar Pradesh. Initially, these devotee belonged to the Sufi order of the Qalandariyah Faqirs, who then took to the profession of bear fighting. The Qalandar consists of three sub-divisions, the Langre in eastern Rohilkhand, the Rohilla in western Rohilkhand and the Machhle in Awadh, all of whom are found in Uttar Pradesh, and speak their own dialect, known as Qalandari.[4]

In Pakistan, the Qalandar are found mainly in Pakistani Punjab. According to their traditions, the Qalandar are descended of ancestors that arrived in from Balkh and Bukhara in Central Asia in the distant past. These settlers were all said to be devotees of the Sufi saint Bu Ali Qalandar of Panipat. Unlike the Uttar Pradesh Qalandar who moved east, the Qalandar of what became Pakistan began a slow migration westward, with small groups moving into Punjab by mid 15th Century. At the time of the partition of India in 1947, the Muslim Qalandar of east Punjab, which included Panipat and Karnal moved to Pakistan, joining groups who were already settled there.[1]

Present circumstances[edit]

In India[edit]

In North India, a part of these people started leading bears, monkeys and other performing animals with which they wonder, announcing the presence with an hour glass shaped drum called a damru, which is used in their performances for emphasis, while a larger part of these people settled in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Bengal and began a sedentary life while continuing the old traditional mystic religious beliefs. Some of them got connected to different khanqah in Bihar especially in Biharsharif and Danapoor.[5] Historically, all Qalandar were once a nomadic community, but many are now settled. In 1972, bear hunting and capturing were declared illegal in India, and there has been persistent effort by the Indian government to clamp down on the activity of bear performing. In addition, the traditional occupation of bear fighting has come to much criticism from the animal rights activists in the west, and have now been proscribed by India. They are now undergoing settlement, with many taking to cultivation. But their holdings are extremely small, and many are sharecroppers. A much larger group of Qalandars are now daily wage labourers, and they are extremely marginalized community, both socially and economically.[3]

Although the community are Sunni, they incorporate many folk traditions and beliefs. This includes special reverence to the Sufi saint Bu Ali Qalandar, who is buried in Panipat. They visit his shrine every year on occasion of his birth. Many of the settled Qalandar are undergoing Islamization, and some of their folk beliefs are being discarded. But they remain an extremely marganilized community, interacting little with neighbouring Muslim communities.[4]

In Pakistan[edit]

The basic unit of the Qalandar society is the tent or puki. Each puki represents a commensal group, comprising a female, her spouse and unmarried . A collection of puki forms a dera or camp. Most members of the dera are related to each other. Marriages take place with close kin, and the Qalandar practice both cross cousin and parallel cousin marriages.[6]

Unlike their Indian counterparts, the Pakistan Qalandar are still nomadic, with most still involved in their traditional occupations of entertainment routines involving trained bears, monkeys, dogs and goats. In addition, they are often skilled jugglers, acrobats, magicians, impersonators and beggars. The Qalandar travel from community to community, setting camp in fallow fields.[1] In Pakistan the bears are trapped is by members of the Kohistani ethnic group, and then sold to the Qalandar in markets in Peshawar and Rawalpindi. The Qalandar are an extremely marganilized group, suffering from discrimination and often victims of abuse by state officials such as the police or municipal staff.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abcWhy Bulbuls bark: conflict, continuity, and identity among professional strangers / Joseph C. Berland pages 235to 255 in Customary strangers : new perspectives on peripatetic peoples in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia / edited by Joseph C. Berland and Aparna Rao. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2004.ISBN0897897714
  2. ^Qalandar in People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part Two edited by A Hasan & J C Das pages 677 to 682
  3. ^ abcPeripatetic peoples and Lifestyles by Aparna Rao in Disappearing peoples? : indigenous groups and ethnic minorities in South and Central Asia / edited by Barbara A. Brower, Barbara Rose Johnston pages 53 to 72 ISBN1598741209
  4. ^ abQalandar in People of India Uttar Pradesh Volume XLII Part Two edited by A Hasan & J C Das page 677 to 682 Manohar Publications
  5. ^Qalandar in The last wanderers : nomads and gypsies of India by Tejinder Singh Randhawa page 166 ISBN0-944142-35-4
  6. ^Why Bulbuls bark: conflict, continuity, and identity among professional strangers / Joseph C. Berland pages 235to 255 in Customary strangers : new perspectives on peripatetic peoples in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia / edited by Joseph C. Berland and Aparna Rao. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2004.ISBN0897897714
Retrieved from 'https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Qalandar_(caste)&oldid=940494493'

Show map of India Location in Haryana, India Coordinates:: Country Area. Total 64 km 2 (25 sq mi) Elevation 219 m (719 ft) Population (2011). Total 1,205,437. Density 19,000/km 2 (49,000/sq mi) Languages. Official 132103 Telephone code 0180 HR 06 Website Panipat is an ancient and historic city in, India. It is 90 km north of and 169 km south of on -1. The three battles fought near the city in, and were all turning points in Indian history. The city is famous in India by the name of 'City of Weavers' and 'Textile City'. It is also known as the 'cast-off capital' due to being 'the global centre for recycling textiles'. Main articles:, and Panipat district was carved out from the erstwhile Karnal district on 1 November 1989.

On 24 July 1991 it was again merged with Karnal district. On 1 January 1992, it again became a separate district. According to the legend, Panipat was one of the five cities (prasthas) founded by the brothers during the times of the; its historic name was Pandavaprastha (: पाण्डवप्रस्थ, lit. City of Pandavas) Panipat was the scene of three pivotal battles in Indian history. Panipat is first recorded in the Mahabharata as one of the five villages that the Pandavas demanded from Duryodhana.

The five villages are the 'panch pat':. Panprastha (now known as Panipat). Sonaprastha (now known as ). Indraprastha (now known as ).

Vyaghraprastha became Baghpath (now known as ). Tilprastha (now known as ) The was fought on 21 April 1526 between, the Afghan, and the warlord, who later established in Northern Indian subcontinent. Babur's force defeated Ibrahim's much larger force of over one lakh (one hundred thousand) soldiers. This first battle of Panipat thus ended the 'Lodi Rule' established by Bahlul Lodhi in Delhi. The was fought on 5 November 1556 between the forces of and, a Hindu King of Delhi.

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Panipat Pdf In Marathi Translation

Hemu had a large army, and initially his forces were winning, but suddenly he was struck by an arrow in the eye and fell unconscious. On not seeing him in his howdah on the back of an elephant, his army fled. He was executed shortly thereafter. His head was sent to to be hanged outside Delhi Darwaza, and his torso was hanged outside Purana Quila in Delhi.

The was fought on 14 January 1761 between the and the and invaders. The Maratha Empire was led by Sadashivrao Bhau Peshwa and the Afghans were led by Ahmadshah Abdali.

The Afghans had a total strength of 125,000 soldiers, and the Marathas had 100,000 soldiers and 25,000 pilgrims. The Maratha soldiers were unable to get food because of non-cooperation of other empires of Hindustan (India and Pakistan were not separated) and this resulted in having to eat the leaves off trees to survive.

Both the sides fought their heart out. The Afghans were supported by Najib and Sujaudolla for the supply of food, and the Maratha had pilgrims along with them, who were unable to fight, including female pilgrims also. On the single day of 14 January, more than one lakh (100,000) of soldiers died resulting in the victory for the Afghans. Marathi verbs There are some verbs in the originated from the related to loss as 'Panipat zale' (पानिपत झाले) (Panipat is finished). This verb is even today used in the Marathi language. A common pun is 'Aamchaa Vishwaas Panipataat gela' (आमचा विश्वास पानीपतात गेला) we lost our (Vishwas) Trust since Panipat.

Geography Panipat is located. It has an average elevation of 219 metres (718 ). Demographics As per provisional data of the 2011 census, Panipat urban agglomeration had a population of 1,205,437, out of which males were 646,857 and females were 558,580. The literacy rate was 75.94 per cent. Industries Panipat is called the city of weavers, as it produces and.

It is the biggest center for quality blankets and carpets in India and has a hand loom industry. Panipat city is the biggest centre of 'shoddy yarn' in the World. Blankets prepared through hand looms and power looms are sent to soldiers.

In Panipat 30,000 industries provided 5 lakh people work. The Samalkha subdivision of this district is famous for foundry of agriculture instruments. In this way, this district, which is continuously developing on the industrial base, has an unlimited employment capacity. Businessmen and engineers and unemployed worker artist weavers and labour from other states of India visit here in search of employment and settle here permanently. Transport is on Delhi-Kalka line, Delhi-Atari line, Delhi-Jammu line, Panipat-Jind line, Panipat-Rohtak line and upcoming purposed Panipat-Meerut line & Panipat-Haridwar line.

It is also well connected by Haryana State Road Transport Corporation and Punjab Roadways buses, especially because it falls on the Delhi-Chandigarh route. Delhi-Amritsar National Highway 1 (known as GT road locally) passes through Panipat, and a substantial amount of trade and commercial activities are carried in and around the settlements. Places of interest Panipat Museum The Battle of Panipat Memorial society, set up by the Government of, highlights the major events that took place for over two hundred years which made Panipat a place of great historical importance. A painting from Akbar's collection in the museum shows how 's community and his supporters were beheaded and minarets were built of their heads to terrorise Hindus of that period. Panipat Museum has been especially established for disseminating information about the archaeology, history, art and crafts of Haryana with special emphasis on the battles of Panipat which marked the turning point in Indian history, The display of antiquities, inscription, sculptures, arms and armors, pottery, old and valuable documents, jewellery and art and craft objects, have been augmented by maps, writeups, and photographs.

Through display an attempt has been made to provide an insight into the acts of bravery of some valiant and patriotic warriors who sacrificed their lives at Panipat. These include, Peshwa, - son of and, Vyankatrao Wable - a local hero also known as called so after winning 22 continuous battles and who belonged to Haryana, Raja SurjaMal of Bharatpur, Vikramaditya (Vikramajit) of Gwalior, Maharaja of Patiala, Sher Shah SURI. Enlarged photographs of a large number of important miniatures, mostly from Babur-Nama and Akbar-Nama, relating to these battles and personalities connected therewith, have been obtained from the National Museum of New Delhi, The British Library, Victoria and Albert Museum of London.

A large number of contemporary weapons, armory, guns, etc. Have been acquired through loan from the Archaeological Survey of India, The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Haryana is also associated with this project, has donated a large number of items for display in this Museum. These include replicas of a large number of artifacts in the form of status, pottery, coins, etc.

Which were collected from the excavated sites in Haryana besides a number of blow-ups of building and sites of historical and archaeological importance. In addition, a large number of items of traditional art have been procured from various districts of haryana with the help of District Administration which exhibit a glimpse of haryana’s traditional art. Hemu's Samadhi Sthal. Main article: The wounded (a hero also known as ) was captured by st the and carried to the Mughal camp at on Jind Road at Panipat. According to, Bairam Khan asked Akbar to behead Hemu so that he could earn the title of.

Akbar replied, 'He is already dead, if he had any strength for a duel, I would have killed him.' After Akbar's refusal Hemu's body was denied honour by the Mughal battle tradition and was unceremoniously beheaded. Hemu's head was sent to where it was hung outside the Delhi Darwaza while his body was placed in a outside in Delhi to terrorise Indians. After Hemu's death, a massacre of Hemu's Hindu community and followers was ordered by Bairam Khan. Thousands were beheaded and towers of skulls were built with their heads, to instil terror among the Hindus and Afghans. After few years Hemu's supporters, constructed a (Hindu shrine) over the place where he was beheaded. The place and its surroundings have been slowly encroached upon by local people.

This is the only memorial of Hemu in Panipat but it is in a bad condition. Ibrahim Lodhi's Tomb. Main article: It was one of ’s dying regrets that he could never fulfill his intention of erecting a tomb to the fallen monarch Ibrahim Lodhi. Much later, in 1866, the British relocated the tomb which was just a simple grave during construction of the and added a platform to it with an inscription highlighting Ibrahim Lodhi’s death in the Battle of Panipat.

Another memorial, however, is said to have existed which used to be a place of pilgrimage for the people of Gwalior since Vikramaditya, the last Raja ( of the old dynasty of ), fell in the same battle. This memorial, according to, was destroyed when the was made. Babur's Kabuli Bagh Mosque. Main article: The garden of Kabuli Bagh along with the and a tank were built by after the to commemorate his victory over. Some years later when Humayun defeated near Panipat, he added a masonry Platform to it and called it ‘Chabutra' Fateh Mubarak, bearing the inscription 934 Hijri (1557 CE).

These buildings and the garden still exist under the name of Kabuli Bagh called so after Babur’s wife – Mussammat Kabuli begum. Shri Devi temple A temple dedicated to a local deity exists on the bank of a large tank. A Shiva temple believed to have been built by a warrior named Mangal Raghunath who had remained in Panipat after the battle, also exists besides it. Kala Amb. Main article: According to the tradition, the site 8 km from Panipat and 42 km from Karnal, where commanded his forces during the third battle of Panipat was marked by a black Mango Tree (Kala Amb) which has since disappeared.

The dark colour of its foliage was probably the origin of the name. The site has a brick Pillar with an iron rod and the structure is surrounded by an iron fence. The site is being developed and beautified by a society with the Governor of Haryana as its President. Community of Haryana organises a programme every year in memory of warriors on the day of 14 January at in which many people from and participate. SalarGanj Gate This gate is situated in the middle of Panipat city. The gate still denotes its archaeological interest. A local market has developed around this gate.

Gurudwara Dera Baba Jodh Sachiyar Ji Gurudwara Dera Baba Jodh Sachiyar Ji is one of the popular Sikh shrines of Panipat. People of Panipat visit this place regularly in huge numbers. There are many events and programs arranged by the followers in the premises of this Gurudwara to pay their devotion to god. This Gurudwara is a beautifully sculpted and artistically designed along with splendid interiors to mesmerize the onlookers. Devotees coming to this place get complete peace of mind in the house of Guru. People can attend regular bhajan and kirtan organized by saints at this Gurudwara. Address: Gurudwara Dera Baba Jodh Sachiyar Ji, G.T.

Road, Panipat, Haryana, India. Panipat Elevated Expressway. 7 September 2017. Richards, John F., ed. (1995) 1993.

The New Cambridge History of India (7th ed.). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2013-05-29. Kolff, Dirk H.

Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2013-05-29. Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011.

Panipat pdf in marathi free

Retrieved 2012-07-26. Har-Anand Publications. Retrieved 17 November 2014.

Abdul Quadir Badayuni, Muntkhib-ul-Tawarikh, Volume 1, page 6. (2001). Genesis Publishing Pvt., Jul 04, 2005.

Retrieved 2016-03-27. External links. travel guide from Wikivoyage. '.

12 July 1961 – this fateful day will remain forever etched in Pune’s history. A day that changed the history and geography of this great city. Call it a bad coincidence – but two events that happened almost exactly 200 years apart have played a critical role in Pune’s history – to the extent that they have been added to the local Marathi lexicon. The first one was the and the second one: the Panshet flood. “पानिपत झालं” (Panipat zala) and “पानशेत झालं” (Panshet zala) are commonly used terms today to refer to a big disaster.

Half a century ago, the new under-construction Panshet dam had started developing some problems, even before it was complete. Against some recommendations, the dam was being filled up during the 1961 monsoon season.

Pdf

Cracks started developing and yet there was lot of debate on whether the dam was in real imminent danger. Read this technical article for a good engineering summary of what went wrong at Panshet: A valiant last-ditch effort by the Army Jawans managed to delay the inevitable by a few hours.

These few hours helped a lot. If not for this great effort, where thousands of sand bags were deployed, the dam would have burst in the middle of the night, creating havoc for the sleeping residents of Pune. The few hours delay meant that the burst happened early morning and the wall of flood waters reached Pune later in the morning. The deluge of flood waters of Panshet also broke the smaller Khadakwasla dam, further downstream. Residents started getting some warnings early in the morning and the authorities started moving out the residents living near the riverside. Many residents fled to higher grounds, some all the way to the Parvati Hill.

Apparently, All India Radio did not broadcast any warnings, and was playing a regular scheduled music program when the floods struck. The low lying areas of the old city were almost completely submerged.

Except for the Bund Garden Bridge, all the bridges were under water as well. Water rushed into the old ‘Peths’ and along Karve Road, Deccan Gymkhana areas. For many hours, the high water levels persisted.

Roughly speaking Panshet water reservoir stores enough water for all of Pune’s city needs today (today’s needs are probably 5-10 times more than the 1960s requirements). Imagine all that water being drained out in just a few hours! To give you an idea of the level of the water, just visualize the first floor of Abasaheb Garware College (MES) on Karve Road, nearly completely submerged! Some people and rescue workers were trying navigate Deccan Gymkhana, FC/JM Road areas in small boats. The water levels finally started falling by late night. The floods completely cutoff the electric and water supply. July 12th was a dark, rainy night in Pune – with rumors still doing the rounds.

Some of them pointed to more floods on the way (even though the dams had been drained empty by then.). When the flood-waters receded, they left behind a trail of destruction and a muddy mess. The cleanup and rebuilding took many months. The old riverside city landscape changed forever. New localities (such as Lokmanya Nagar, Gokhale Nagar, etc.) were setup to resettle some of the flood affected citizens. Most of the bridges were damaged and needed fixing and in some cases complete rebuilding.

With Khadakwasla and Panshet dams completely drained, there was no water supply for the city. The Peshwa era Katraj water aqueduct was used to meet some water requirements. Wells were another source.

Wadas that had wells had to prominently list ‘Well’ on their main door – so that, the water source could be be made available. I have found a series of good articles about the Panshet flood disaster, including many firsthand accounts.

Some of these links are listed below. I will continue to add more links here. If you come across any good articles, do let me know. Also if you have personal memories from your own experiences, or from your friends & families, please share them here in the comments section.

Indian Express Headline: July 12, 1961 पानशेत प्रलय आणी मी – मधुकर हेबळे ( ‘Panshet Pralay Ani Mi’ – Madhukar Heble). 3rd Battle Of Panipat (image credit: wikipedia) January 14, 1761 – the fateful day that forever will live in the infamy of Pune, Maharashtra and India history. This was the day that coined a new word in the Marathi lexicon: ‘Panipat’ (literally means ‘a disaster’ in Marathi). This was the day when Sadashivrao Bhau’s armies were defeated in a bloody battle against Ahmedshah Abdalli on the plains of Panipat, 100km north of Delhi, in one of the biggest battles witnessed in India in the 18th century. The causalities and destruction on both sides were very high; even the victor couldn’t consolidate his position significantly. This was the day where a culmination of many strategic and tactical mistakes finally caught up with the Marathas.

This was the day when the Maratha Empire took a big step down from its absolute peak. This was the day from whose shock Nanasaheb Peshwe never recovered – and eventually died later in the same year. The fact that the Maratha Empire was able to rise back to a respectable level again owes a lot to the great Madhavrao Peshwe, who inherited a shocked and weakened post-Panipat empire at a young age of 16.

In a short span of 12 years, before he fell to tuberculosis, he brought about a huge turnaround. British historian Grant Duff summarizes this quite well: “the plains of Panipat were not more fatal to the Maratha Empire than the early end of this excellent prince”. Maratha Empire in 1760 (image credit: wikipedia) This was the day where many great instances of individual bravery and heroism were witnessed. This was the day that quite possibly changed the course of Indian history.

Panipat Pdf In Marathi Pdf

The British who had just won their first major victory in India at Plassey in 1757 got an opening. Today, we solemnly commemorate the 250th anniversary of 3rd battle of Panipat. This is the time to remember the heroism; and also to learn from the mistakes. Today we remember Sadashivrao Bhau, Vishwasrao, Dattaji Shinde, Ibrahim Gardi and countless other brave soldiers who fell in that fateful battle, 250 years ago. All over Maharashtra and India, many functions have been organized to remember this day, including some at Panipat.

Numerous books and research works have been published on this topic. To get an overview, I would recommend the reader start with this: ) ——Update on Feb 7, 2011—– has written one of the most popular books about the Battle of Panipat. Originally written in Marathi nearly 20 years back, it has had many new editions/reprints and has been translated into other languages as well. Here is a nice indepth interview of Vishwas Patil (4 parts): ——-Update on Jan 13, 2013—— One of the best books to read on this topic is ‘Solstice at Panipat’ by Dr. Pokemon emerald 386 rom download. Uday Kulkarni. Highly recommended. You can check out the book’s facebook page here: Good review of ‘Solstice at Panipat’ by Manimughda S Sharma: ‘Panipat 3 resurrected’.

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Panipat Book In Marathi Pdf Download

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Panipat Pdf In Marathi Translation

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