Lead Acid Battery

Posted : admin On 17.08.2021

When it comes to choosing the right batteryfor your application, you likely have a list of conditions you need to fulfill.How much voltage is needed, what is the capacity requirement, cyclic or standby,etc. Cisco anyconnect client macos big sur.

Once you have the specifics narrowed downyou may be wondering, “do I need a lithium battery or a traditional sealed leadacid battery?” Or, more importantly, “what is the difference between lithiumand sealed lead acid?” There are several factors to consider before choosing abattery chemistry, as both have strengths and weaknesses.

  • Leoch mainly produces reserve power batteries, SLI batteries and motive power batteries and they include series products such as AGM VRLA batteries, VRLA-GEL battery, pure lead batteries, lead carbon battery, UPS high rate batteries, marine batteries, railway batteries, start-stop batteries, automotive batteries, motorcycle batteries, li-on battery,tubular plate batteries, golf cart batteries.
  • Lead acid batteries are strings of 2 volt cells connected in series, commonly 2, 3, 4 or 6 cells per battery. Strings of lead acid batteries, up to 48 volts and higher, may be charged in series safely and efficiently. However, as the number of batteries in series increases, so does the possibility of.

5 Lead Acid Batteries. 5.1 Introduction. Lead acid batteries are the most commonly used type of battery in photovoltaic systems. Although lead acid batteries have a low energy density, only moderate efficiency and high maintenance requirements, they also have a long lifetime and low costs compared to other battery.

For the purpose of this blog, lithium refers to Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries only, and SLA refers to lead acid/sealed lead acid batteries.

CYCLIC PERFORMANCE LITHIUM VS SLA

The most notable difference between lithium iron phosphate and lead acid is the fact that the lithium battery capacity is independent of the discharge rate. The figure below compares the actual capacity as a percentage of the rated capacity of the battery versus the discharge rate as expressed by C (C equals the discharge current divided by the capacity rating). With very high discharge rates, for instance .8C, the capacity of the lead acid battery is only 60% of the rated capacity. Find out more about C rates of batteries.

Therefore, in cyclic applications where the discharge rate is often greater than 0.1C, a lower rated lithium battery will often have a higher actual capacity than the comparable lead acid battery. This means that at the same capacity rating, the lithium will cost more, but you can use a lower capacity lithium for the same application at a lower price. The cost of ownership when you consider the cycle, further increases the value of the lithium battery when compared to a lead acid battery.

The second most notable difference between SLA and Lithium is the cyclic performance of lithium. Lithium has ten times the cycle life of SLA under most conditions. This brings the cost per cycle of lithium lower than SLA, meaning you will have to replace a lithium battery less often than SLA in a cyclic application.

CONSTANT POWER DELIVERY LITHIUM VS LEAD ACID

Lithium delivers the same amount of power throughout the entire discharge cycle, whereas an SLA’s power delivery starts out strong, but dissipates. The constant power advantage of lithium is shown in the graph below which shows voltage versus the state of charge.

A lithium battery as shown in the orange has a constant voltage as it discharges throughout the entire discharge. Power is a function of voltage times current. The current demand will be constant and thus the power delivered, power times current, will be constant. So, let’s put this in a real-life example.

Lead Acid Battery Construction

Have you ever turned on aflashlight and noticed it’s dimmer than the last time you turned it on? This isbecause the battery inside the flashlight is dying, but not yet completely dead.It is giving off a little power, but not enough to fully illuminate the bulb.

If this were a lithium battery, the bulb would be just as bright from the beginning of its life to the end. Instead of waning, the bulb would just not turn on at all if the battery were dead.

CHARGING TIMES OF LITHIUM AND SLA

Charging SLA batteries is notoriously slow. In most cyclic applications, you need to have extra SLA batteries available so you can still use your application while the other battery is charging. In standby applications, an SLA battery must be kept on a float charge.

With lithium batteries, charging is four times faster than SLA. The faster charging means there is more time the battery is in use, and therefore requires less batteries. They also recover quickly after an event (like in a backup or standby application). As a bonus, there is no need to keep lithium on a float charge for storage. For more information on how to charge a lithium battery, please view our Lithium Charging Guide.

HIGH TEMPERATURE BATTERY PERFORMANCE

Lithium’s performance is far superior than SLA in high temperature applications. In fact, lithium at 55°C still has twice the cycle life as SLA does at room temperature. Lithium will outperform lead under most conditions but is especially strong at elevated temperatures.

COLD TEMPERATURE BATTERY PERFORMANCE

Cold temperatures can cause significant capacity reduction for all battery chemistries. Knowing this, there are two things to consider when evaluating a battery for cold temperature use: charging and discharging. A lithium battery will not accept a charge at a low temperature (below 32° F). However, an SLA can accept low current charges at a low temperature.

Conversely, a lithium battery has a higher dischargecapacity at cold temperatures than SLA. This means that lithium batteries donot have to be over designed for cold temperatures, but charging could be alimiting factor. At 0°F, lithium is discharged at 70% of its rated capacity,but SLA is at 45%.

One thing to consider in cold temperature is the state of the lithium battery when you want to charge it. If the battery has just finished discharging, the battery will have generated enough heat to accept a charge. If the battery has had a chance to cool down, it may not accept a charge if the temperature is below 32°F.

BATTERY INSTALLATION

If you have ever tried to install a lead acid battery, you know how important it is to not install it in an invert position to prevent any potential issues with venting. While an SLA is designed to not leak, the vents allow for some residual release of the gasses.

In a lithium battery design, the cells are all individually sealed and cannot leak. This means there is no restriction in the installation orientation of a lithium battery. It can be installed on its side, upside down, or standing up with no issues.

BATTERY WEIGHT COMPARISION

Lithium, on average, is 55% lighter than SLA. In cycling applications, this is especially important when the battery is being installed in a mobile application (batteries for motorcycles or scooters), or where weight may impact the performance (like in robotics). For standby use, weight is an important consideration in remote applications (solar fields) and where installation is difficult (up high in emergency lighting systems, for example).

SLA VS LITHIUM BATTERY STORAGE

Lithium should not be stored at 100% State of Charge (SOC), whereas SLA needs to be stored at 100%. This is because the self-discharge rate of an SLA battery is 5 times or greater than that of a lithium battery. In fact, many customers will maintain a lead acid battery in storage with a trickle charger to continuously keep the battery at 100% so that the battery life does not decrease due to storage.

SERIES & PARALLEL BATTERY INSTALLATION

A quick and important note: When installing batteries in series and parallel, it is important that they are matched across all factors including capacity, voltage, resistance, state of charge, and chemistry. SLA and lithium batteries cannot be used together in the same string.

Since an SLA battery is considered a “dumb” battery in comparison to lithium (which has a circuit board that monitors and protects the battery), it can handle many more batteries in a string than lithium.

The string length of lithium is limited by the components on the circuit board. Circuit board components can have current and voltage limitations that long series strings will exceed. For example, a series string of four lithium batteries will have a max voltage of 51.2 volts. A second factor is the protection of the batteries. One battery that exceeds the protection limits can disrupt the charging and discharging of the entire string of batteries. Most lithium strings are limited to 6 or less (model dependent), but higher string lengths can be reached with additional engineering.

There are many differences between SLA and lithium battery performance. In most instances, lithium is the stronger battery. However, SLA should not be discounted as it still has an edge over lithium in some applications, like long strings, extremely high rate of discharge, and cold temperature charging. If there is an application not covered above, or if you have additional questions, please feel free to contact us.

The simple definition of a lead-acid battery is a storage device for electrical energy. This energy can then be used to power electrical circuits within a car.

There are two main things to consider when looking at car batteries; voltage, and current. The voltage should typically be around 12.6 volts when the battery is fully charged, and refers to how much energy is stored in the battery.

Think of voltage as the battery’s potential to flow electricity. Whereas the current, measured in amps, is the rate at which the electricity flows.

Acid

Batteries used in cars are lead-acid batteries. They produce voltage by having plates of metal (made of lead-based alloys) immersed in an electrolyte solution (a mix of 65% water and 35% sulphuric acid) in six cells.

A chemical reaction between the plates produces a voltage of approximately 2.1volts per cell, so a total of 12.6 volts.

At 12.4 volts it’s considered only 50% charged, and at this point the battery wouldn’t be able to power systems that require a loyt of current, such as the starter motor of the headlights. At 12.0 volts the battery is only 25% vharged, and at 10.5% the unit is considered fully discharged.

It’s important to consider the Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) rating when buying a battery for a car.

The CCA is a measure of how many amps a battery can produce for a 30second period at 0 degrees Fahrenheit, before the voltage drops to an unusable level.

Typical car batteries are either 350, 450 and 600 CCA. The bigger the figure, the better a battery will start a car, especially in cold weather. But higher CCA batteries tend to be more expensive.

The battery’s Ah (ampere-hours) rating is the measure of how much electrical current it can deliver. Typical ratings for car batteries are between 75 and 120 Ah. As an example, a 100 Ah battery can supply 5 amps for 20 hours, 10 amps for 10 hours, or 20 amps for 5 hours, and so on.

Most modern car batteries are sealed units (apart from a very tiny breather system), which reduces the amount of electrolyte lost when the charging/discharging cycle is taking place.

Battery

These type of batteries last far longer than those produced even 10-20 years ago, but no unit is life-long however.

Over time, the constant cycle of charging/discharging will mean the lead plates will deteriorate to a point where a useful current is no longer produced.

Lead Acid Battery Recycling

At this point the unit will need to be replaced. A good-quality modern battery should last at least five years of daily use in a well-kept car’s electrical system.